Successful agricultural development has resulted in substantial alleviation of poverty and food security in Asia and Latin America since the 1960s. Much of this success can be attributed to the introduction of high-yielding varieties of crops, especially wheat and rice, which have addressed the constraints faced by farmers using traditional varieties. In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), however, productivity levels have remained stagnant despite the introduction of new crop germplasm.
Soil organic carbon (SOC) constitutes a large pool within the global carbon cycle. Land use change significantly drives SOC stock variation. In tropical central and eastern Africa, how changes in land use and land cover impact on soil C stocks remains unclear. Variability in the existing data is typically explained by soil and climate factors with little consideration given to land use and management history.
The implications of migrant agricultural production for the environment have interested policy makers in sub-Saharan Africa of late. The impacts in the region of migrant destination may be short-term including initial felling of trees, intensive land use, and application of techniques. In the longer term, tenants are expected to adjust their techniques to that of the indigenous landowners. This paper explains how migrant tenants manage the quality of rented plots in the absence of clearly defined property rights with a survey data from rural area in Ghana.
A conceptual framework is developed and used for improving the livelihood of Sub-Saharan communities faced with multiple stresses resulting from adverse environments, vector-transmitted diseases, and limited food. Ecosocial systems are the units for management. The accumulation of ecological, economic, and social capital is the objective of management, the reduction of maintenance costs is the key strategy, and technologies must satisfy ecological, economic, and social criteria.
If we call a significant yield increase in single crops a ‘green revolution’, then the first green revolution took place about 10 000–12 000 years ago, when humans started to cultivate land. This was also the beginning of civilization. Since then, humans have increasingly transformed the land and natural vegetation and have risen to be the main creators of the biogeosphere. Today, there is hardly any ecosystem around the globe that has not been influenced by humans.
Faced with a changing economic environment (poor functioning of the groundnut sector, economic liberalization, etc.), rural households seek first and foremost to secure food for their families by diversifying their production and their economic activities in the village and in urban centres through temporary migration. In this context, the farm seen as an institution cannot be considered as a company in the sense of the classical economic theory. It corresponds more to a system of activities whose operation takes into account both market and family objectives.
Striga is an indigenous parasitic weed that attacks cereals and other crops in Africa. In maize croplands alone, Striga infests over 2.3 million ha resulting in 1.6 million tons of grain loss worth US $383 million annually. An innovative approach to controlling the parasite was to induce herbicide resistance in maize and to coat the seed with herbicide to provide chemical protection from infection.
Livestock-water productivity (LWP) refers to a set of innovations that could contribute towards reducing the amount of water needed per unit of output generated. But what does it take to get these ideas adopted by livestock keepers in crop-livestock systems? In this paper, we treat LWP as an innovation, and consider in what ways it may be introduced and/or developed among the crop-livestock agricultural systems by drawing on successful examples of change.
Debates around Common Property Resources and Intellectual Property Rights failto consider traditional and indigenous rights regimes that regulate plant resourceexploitation, establish bundles of powers and obligations for heterogeneous groups ofusers, and create differential entitlements to benefits that are related to social structures.Such rights regimes are important to maintaining biodiversity and to human welfare;failing to recognize them presents dangers.